What is Crohn's disease?

Crohn's disease is a lifelong condition in which parts of the digestive system become inflamed.

Genetic, autoimmune, imbalance of gut bacteria, Previous infection of the gut, Smoking have been proposed as causes of Crohn's disease.

What are the symptoms of Crohn's disease?

Repeated diarrhea which may contain blood, mucus, pus

Discomfort in the abdomen (tummy)

Needing to go to the restroom to have a bowel movement repeatedly

Weight loss

Sores in the mouth

What should I do if I have symptoms of Crohn's disease?

Consult your healthcare provider.

How is Crohn's disease diagnosed and treated?

Your healthcare provider will perform a physical exam, Lab tests.

A procedure is done where a camera will be passed to look at the gut[Colonoscopy, Upper and lower GI Endoscopy].

Treatment is done with oral medicines to control the acute symptoms, Long-term medicines to suppress the immune system.

Sometimes surgery is recommended.

How do I manage Crohn's disease in the long-term?

 

Take medications as prescribed.

Avoid smoking.

You will see a team of healthcare providers, who will help you manage Crohn's disease.

Location of abdominal organs

Image result for colon location 

What is Urinary tract infection or UTI?

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can affect different parts of the urinary tract, bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis) or kidneys (kidney infection). 

What are the symptoms of Urinary tract infection?

Pee more than usual, or suddenly

Pain or discomfort while peeing

Smelly or cloudy urine

Blood in the urine

Discomfort in the abdomen (tummy), or sides of the abdomen (flanks)

Feeling tired, chills and fever

In older patients, they may be confused or agitated

What should I do if I have symptoms of Urinary tract infection?

Consult your healthcare provider.

How is Urinary tract infection diagnosed and treated?

Your healthcare provider will perform a physical exam, Lab tests, urine tests. 

Men may have a swab taken from the tip of the penis.

How is urinary tract infection treated?

Urinary tract infection is treated with antibiotics.

How do I prevent urinary tract infection?

Finish antibiotics as prescribed completely, even when you feel better with a few pills.

Drink plenty of fluids.

Wipe from front to back when you go to the toilet.

Try to empty your bladder fully when you pee

Take showers instead of bath

Personal hygiene, Loose cotton underwear

Pee, wash with soap and water before and after sex

Change diapers regularly.

Location of Urinary tract

 

Image result for Urinary tractImage result for Urinary tract

What is Sexually transmitted disease, sexually transmitted infection [STD, STI]?

These are diseases which are transmitted through sex. Common examples are HIV, gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, genital herpes, Genital warts, scabies, syphilis, pubic lice, etc.

What are the symptoms of Sexually transmitted infection?

Unusual discharge from the vagina, penis or anus

Pain while peeing

Lumps or skin growths around the genitals or penis.

Skin rash

Itchy genitals or penis.

Blisters or sores around the genitals or anus

What should I do if I have symptoms of Sexually transmitted Infection?

Consult your healthcare provider.

How is Sexually transmitted infection diagnosed and treated?

Your healthcare provider will ask you a few questions about your sex life, provide a physical exam.

They may ask for a urine sample, obtain a swab, order blood tests.

Medicines are prescribed.

What should I do if I have sexually transmitted infection?

Don't have sex, including oral sex, without a condom until you have had a check-up.

You can have an STI without knowing it and infect your partner during sex.

Take the medications as prescribed by your healthcare provider.

What can I do to protect from sexually transmitted infection?

 Use condoms consistently during every sexual encounter.

Stay monogamous if possible.

Talk to your healthcare provider for more details.

Prevent STI

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What is Polycystic ovarian syndrome?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome affects the way ovaries work. 

What are the symptoms of Polycystic ovarian syndrome?

Irregular periods.

Excess body hair, facial hair.

Fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries

Difficulty getting pregnant

Acne

What should I do if I have symptoms of Polycystic ovarian syndrome?

Consult your healthcare provider.

How is Polycystic ovarian syndrome diagnosed and treated?

Your healthcare provider will order blood test to check for hormone levels, blood sugars, cholesterol, ultrasound.

There are medicines to decrease symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

What can I do for polycystic ovarian syndrome?

Maintain normal body weight, body mass index between 20-25.

Your diet should include plenty of fruit and vegetables, (at least 5 portions a day), whole foods (such as wholemeal bread, wholegrain cereals and brown rice), lean meats, fish and chicken.

Moderate intensity exercise of 30 minutes.

Use the medications as prescribed.

Enlarged follicles in the ovaries

Image result for Polycystic ovarian syndrome

 

Why does neck pain happen?

Neck pain happens when there is injury to structures in the neck like bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles, nerves.

What are the symptoms?

Patients can experience 

Pain or stiffness in the neck, shoulders, upper back, arms.

Headaches

Weakness in the neck.

Unable to turn or move the neck, or discomfort while moving the neck

In cases of severe neck problems, patients may experience

Numbness or pins and needles in the shoulders or arms.

Trouble walking or moving the legs.

Having no control over the bowels or bladder

What should I do if I have symptoms of Neck pain?

Consult your healthcare provider.

How is Neck pain diagnosed and treated?

Your healthcare provider will perform a physical exam, and order imaging if necessary.

Medicines, Exercises will be prescribed to relieve the discomfort.

Self-help for Neck pain?

Take medicines for pain relief as prescribed by your healthcare provider.

Massage the muscles that are tense.

Applying ice to the area to decrease pain [5 minutes at a time, to prevent skin damage]

Apply heating pad/Hot water bottle/hot shower to the area to decrease pain 5-10 minutes at a time [Use caution with heat, it can burn your skin]

Obtain a 'ok'  from your healthcare provider to perform neck exercises.

Reduce stress, talk to your healthcare provider about stress relieving exercises.

Watch your posture.

What can I do to prevent neck pain?

Use good posture – Hold your head up and keep your shoulders down.

Avoid sitting in one position for too long.

Avoid doing work above your head for too long.

Avoid putting pressure on your upper back.

Mattress and pillow with good support, keep your neck in line with the rest of the body when you sleep.

Stress management.