What is epistaxis?

It is a medical term for nosebleeds.

Why do people get nosebleeds?

Common cause are dry air and picking the nose. 

When should I see a healthcare provider?

When there is lot of blood gushing out of the nose

Difficulty breathing, Chest pain, dizziness, ooziness.

Tired, confused, pale

Continuous bleeding

After injury, surgery

If there is a known tumor or growth.

Blood thinner use.

If the symptoms of mild, what should I do?

With the right self-care, most nosebleeds can stop.

Sit or stand while bending forward slightly at the waist.

Pinch the soft area towards the bottom of the nose below the bone on both sides. Squeeze it shut for 15 minutes. Breathe from your mouth.

If you follow these steps, and your nose keeps bleeding, repeat all the steps once more. Apply pressure for a total of at least 30 minutes or 10 minutes for children. If you are still bleeding, go to the emergency room or an urgent care clinic.

Why do I get repeated nosebleeds?

Breathing dry air, Overusing nasal sprays, frequent colds, snorting drugs into the nose, clotting problems

What can I do to prevent nosebleeds?

Use a humidifier in your bedroom.

Use a saline nasal spray or gel

Avoid trauma to the inside of your nose

 Self-care nose bleed, pinching the nose

Image result for pinch nose bad odor

Allergic rhinitis

What is allergic rhinitis?

Allergic rhinitis is inflammation of the inside of the nose caused by allergens such as pollen, dust, mold or flakes of skin from certain animals

What are the symptoms of allergic rhinitis?

Allergic rhinitis typically causes cold-like symptoms, such as sneezing, itchiness and a blocked or runny nose.

It is triggered by exposure to the allergen.

How is allergic rhinitis diagnosed and treated?

Allergic rhinitis is diagnosed based on your symptoms. Certain tests can be done to determine the allergies.

Mild symptoms can be treated with over-the-counter Non-sedating antihistamines, and rinsing your nose with saltwater solution to keep your nose free of irritants.

If the symptoms are severe, consult a healthcare provider.

Nasal spray, oral medications can be prescribed.

What are the long-term complications of allergic rhinitis?

Untreated long-term allergic rhinitis could be to nasal polyps, ear infections, sinus infections.

Nasal polyp

Image result for allergic rhinitis nose

Acute sinusitis

What is sinusitis?

Sinusitis is swelling of the sinuses, usually caused by an infection. It's common and usually clears up on its own within 2 to 3 weeks. But medicines can help if it's taking a long time to go away.

What the symptoms of sinusitis?

Discomfort, swelling, tenderness around your cheeks, eyes, fore head.

Blocked nose.

Reduced sense of smell.

Green or yellow mucus from your nose.

Sinus headache.

High temperature

Discomfort in your teeth.

Bad breath.

How is acute sinusitis diagnosed and treated?

For mild symptoms,

Get plenty of rest

Stay hydrated by drinking lots of fluids

Use over-the-counter Tylenol or ibuprofen [do not give aspirin to children under age 16]

Avoid allergic triggers, avoid smoking.

Consult your healthcare provider if your symptoms are severe. They can prescribe steroid nasal spray to decrease swelling, decongestant nasal spray, antibiotics in case of bacterial infection.

Imaging of the sinuses can be done.

ENT consultation is recommended if sinusitis lasts over three months, repeated sinusitis, unilateral sinusitis.


Otitis media

What is otitis media?

Otitis media are ear infections commonly seen in children.

Ear infections often get better on their own in 2-3 days.

What are the symptoms of otitis media?


Feeling sick.

Loss of energy

Difficulty hearing.

Discharge from the ear

Feeling of pressure inside the ear

Itching and irritation around the ear

Scaly skin in and around the ear.

Young children/babies with your infection may also

Rub or pull their ear

Not react to some sounds


Lose their balance.

Not eat normally.

What should I do if I have otitis media with severe symptoms?

Consult your healthcare provider immediately if

You have high fever.

Ear pain that does not get better after three days.

Swelling around the ear

Fluid/Blood coming from the ear

Other symptoms like being sick, severe sore throat, dizzy

Repeated ear infections

If you have a weak immune system due to long-standing disease, medications.

Antibiotic tablets, eardrops, steroid eardrops, antifungal eardrops can be prescribed based on the condition.

What should I do if I have otitis media with mild symptoms?

Use over-the-counter painkillers like Tylenol or ibuprofen. Children under 16 should not use aspirin.

Place a warm or cold wash cloth on the ear

Do not put anything inside your ear to remove earwax, such as cotton buds or your finger

Do not let water or shampoo get in your ear

Do not use decongestants or antihistamines – there's no evidence they help with ear infections

How can I prevent ear infections?

Stay up-to-date with your vaccinations.

Do not smoke.

Avoid sticking objects or fingers in your ears

Use earplugs when you swim

Prevent water or shampoo getting into your ears when you take a shower or bath.

Treat conditions that affect your ears like eczema or allergies to hearing aids.

Otitis media

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What is a cataract?

Cataract is a condition when the lens, a small transparent disc develops cloudy patches.

What are the symptoms of cataract?

It causes blurry misty vision, lights appear too bright or glaring, difficulty seeing in dim light, colors look faded.

How are cataracts diagnosed?

An optometrist can check your vision and determine if you have cataracts. 

They will refer you to an eye doctor to determine if you are a candidate for surgery.

How are cataracts treated?

If the cataracts of not ready for surgery, stronger glasses are prescribed.

If the cataract is ready for surgery, the eye doctor will perform the surgery.

How can I reduce my risk of cataracts?

Avoid smoking

Maintain normal blood sugars

Avoid trauma to the eyes.

Avoid long-term use of steroids

Avoid drinking too much alcohol.

Use sun shades in bright sunlight

Patients with strong family history of cataracts can get vision checkups from healthcare provider.


 Image result for cataract



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