Please consult your healthcare provider if you have any joint complaints.

Joint pain is a very common complaint, due to various causes. Common reasons for joint pain are osteoarthritis and injury.

In older adults, joint pain, which gets steadily worse maybe due to osteoarthritis.
Joint pain can been a single joint or multiple joints.

The knee joint is probably the most frequently damaged joint and is particularly vulnerable as it takes the full weight of your body.

But knee pain is not always a joint problem. Please consult your healthcare provider for diagnosis and treatment.

Inflammation of the lining of the joints:

After the recent joint injury, if the joint gets painful again, the thin layer of tissue lining the joints and tendons may be inflamed, a condition called traumatic synovitis.

It usually does not cause any redness or heat.

You should be able to manage injury-related swelling at home with NSAID's, such as ibuprofen, an icepack and rest.

Gout or pseudogout:

If the skin over the joint is hot and red, and the pain comes in repeated attacks, the cause is likely to be either gout or pseudogout.

Both of these are types of arthritis.

Gout usually affects the joint of the big toe first before affecting other joints.

It's important to correctly diagnose gout, as treatment will prevent future attacks of joint pain and disability.

Pseudogout is similar to gout, but usually affects the knee joint first.

Consult your healthcare provider if you think you have gout or pseudogout.

Damage to the cartilage behind the knee:

Knee pain that feels worse when you go up or down stairs could be a sign of a damaged kneecap, called chondromalacia patellae. 

This should not cause any redness or heat around the knee.

The cause is not understood, but it can be linked to overuse of the knee.

You can treat this problem yourself with NSAID's, such as ibuprofen, an icepack and rest.

Bleeding into the joint space:

If you have recently had an injury to the knee joint, such as a torn ligament or knee fracture, it may cause bleeding into the joint spaces. This is known as haemarthrosis.

This is more likely to happen if you take blood thinners like warfarin

Signs of Blood in the joint

Swelling of the knee.

Warmth

Stiffness, bruising after injury.

You should get immediate medical attention.

Other less common causes are

Fracture: Usually after trauma, although it can occur easily in patients with osteoporosis or other health conditions.

Reactive arthritis: develops after an infection and commonly affects young adults.

Psoriatic arthritis: joint get affected in patients with psoriasis.

Rheumatoid arthritis: autoimmune condition, which can start in one joint. The pain comes and goes.

Osgood Schlatter's disease: Discomfort and swelling over the bony bump beneath the knee cap.

Infection in the joint: serious condition, get immediate medical attention.

Bleeding disorders: patients can bleed in the joints.

Cancer

Crumbling of the bones.

Dislocation of the joint

Rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a type of arthritis that causes pain and swelling in the joints, usually the hands, feet and wrists.

The pain may come and go in the early stages, with long periods between attacks.

It can make you feel generally unwell and tired.

Psoriatic arthritis.

Psoriatic arthritis affects up to 1 in 5 people with Psoriasis

This type of arthritis is unpredictable, but flare-ups can usually be controlled with treatment. 

Like other types of arthritis, it means that 1 or more of your joints are inflamed and become swollen, stiff, painful and difficult to move.

Joint pain after infection:

Examples of viral infections that can cause pain in the joints and symptoms of a fever include:

Viral hepatitis.

Rubella

Connective tissue diseases.

Widespread joint pain is sometimes a sign of a disease that affects almost all the organs of the body, such as:

Lupus: Autoimmune disease

Scleroderma

Other less common conditions:

Widespread joint pain can less commonly be caused by:

Rarer type of arthritis – such as Ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile arthritis, reactive arthritis 

Bechets syndrome  – a rare and poorly understood condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels

Henoch-Schonlein purpura: Condition usually seen in children, that causes blood vessels to become inflamed.

Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy: Affects the fingers, seen in patients with lung cancer.

Sarcoidosis: causes small patches of tissue to develop in the audience.

Medications: like steroids, hydralazine, isoniazid

Osteoarthritis of the fingers with nodules on the fingers.

Image result for osteoarthritis fingers

Swelling and redness of the right foot from gout

Image result for gout toes

 Rheumatoid arthritis of the hands with swelling of the knuckles and extensive deformities

Image result for Rheumatoid arthritis hands

 

 What is Carpal tunnel syndrome?

Carpal tunnel happens when the carpal tunnel swells and pinches on one of the nerves (median nerve) in the wrist.

It causes tingling, numbness, pain in your wrist and fingers.

What are the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome?

Symptoms are ache or pain in the fingers, or arm.

Tingling, pins and needles, numbness in the hand or fingers.

Difficulty grasping objects.

Thumb feels weak.

What are the risk factors?

You are at risk if you are

Overweight

Pregnant

Work or have hobbies where you repeatedly bend your wrist or grip like working with vibrating tools, typing

Illnesses like arthritis, diabetes, Thyroid problems

Family history.

Previous wrist injury 

What should I do if I have carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms?

Consult your healthcare provider.

How can my healthcare provider help me?Your healthcare provider will talk to you about your symptoms, perform a physical exam.

Your healthcare provider might order an x-ray or ultrasound. Sometimes tests are done to assess nerve function.

How is carpal tunnel syndrome treated?

Your healthcare provider may recommend medicines, wrist splint, injections around the nerve, surgery.

Self-help?

Self-help is for mild symptoms only. Consult a healthcare provider if your symptoms do not get better.

Wear a wrist splint.

A wrist splint is something you wear on your hand to keep your wrist straight. It helps to relieve pressure on the nerve.

You wear it at night while you sleep. You'll have to wear a splint for at least 4 weeks before you start to feel better.

You can buy wrist splints online or from pharmacies.

Stop or cut down on activities that may be causing carpal tunnel syndrome.

Stop or cut down on anything that causes you to frequently bend your wrist or grip hard, such as using vibrating tools for work, playing an instrument, typing.

Medicines to relieve pain

Painkillers like Tylenol or Ibuprofen may offer short-term relief from carpal tunnel pain.

But there's little evidence to say they can treat the cause of CTS, so it's important not to rely on them.

Hand exercises

Consult your healthcare provider for exercises. 

 

 What is Mycoplasma genitalium?

It is a bacteria which is transmitted through sex.

What are the symptoms of Mycoplasma genitalium?

Burning on urination.

Pain during urination.

Discharge from the penis, vagina

Itching of the genitals

Infection of the cervix, pelvic organs

Abdominal pain, pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding after sex

In men who are sexually active with men, or rectal sex, rectal pain, discharge, bleeding, constipation, difficulty having a bowel movement.

How is it diagnosed and treated?

Please consult your healthcare provider.

Your healthcare provider will talk to you about your symptoms, perform an exam.

Your healthcare provider will obtain urine specimen or a swab from the genitals.

Oral antibiotic medicines are prescribed.

You should repeat the test to make sure the infection has cleared after three weeks of finishing antibiotics.
Your sexual partner has to be tested and treated.
How can I decrease the risk of catching Mycoplasma genitalium?
Stay monogamous if possible.
Use condoms during every oral, anal and regular sex.

 What is Plantar fasciitis?

Plantar fasciitis occurs due to sprain of the tissue which connects the heel to the toes.

You'll notice pain on the bottom of your foot, around your heel and arch. 

What causes plantar fasciitis?

Recently started exercising on hard surfaces.

Exercise with a tight calf or heel.

Overstretch the sole of your foot

Recently started a lot of walking, running or standing for long periods of time.

Shoes with poor support.

Overweight

Diabetes, liver disease, Thyroid issues, alcoholism, advanced age, smoking,Bone spurs, Genetic

What are the symptoms of Plantar fasciitis?

Discomfort in the bottom of the foot when you start walking after sleeping or resting.

Pain feels better during exercise, but returns after resting

It is difficult to raise that toes off the floor.

What should I do if I have symptoms of plantar fasciitis?

Consult your healthcare provider.

Your healthcare provider will ask you questions related to your symptoms, performing physical exam.

Based on your condition, they may order Imaging.

Medicines, exercises are advised.

If symptoms do not get better, see your healthcare provider for further instructions.

Self-help?

Self-help is for my symptoms only. If you symptoms persist, please consult your healthcare provider.

Rest and elevate your foot.

Put an ice pack in a towel on the painful area for 20 minutes every 2-3 hours.

Wear comfortable shoes with low heel and soft sole/Heel pads with good support.

Regular gentle stretching exercises like swimming

As needed medicines for pain relief as prescribed by your doctor.

Avoid the following

Do not walk or stand for long periods of time.

Do not wear high heels, tight pointy shoes, flip-flops or backless slippers.

Do not try to walk barefoot on hard surfaces. 

 

Plantar fascia and Achilles tendon

Image result for Plantar fasciitis

 

 

 

 What is a fracture?

A fracture occurs when there is a crack or break in the bone.

What causes Fracture?

They're usually caused by a fall or an injury to the bone, but may occasionally be caused by a health condition, such as cancer that weakens the bone.

What are the symptoms of fracture?

Pain at the site of the fracture

Not being able to lift, move, rotate your limb or site of fracture

Not being able to stand or put weight on your leg.

Bruising and swelling.

Injured area leg/arm appears shorter than the other one.

Injured area looks deformed

Unable to use the arm or leg

What should I do if I have symptoms of Fracture?

Consult your healthcare provider immediately.

Your healthcare provider will ask you questions related to your symptoms, performing physical exam.

Based on your condition, they may order Imaging.

Depending on the condition, splint, cast is recommended.

Sometimes you will need surgery at a hospital.

How can I prevent fractures?

Reduce the risk of falling by:

Assessing your home for hazards such as loose carpeting, cables, clutter around the house. Address the hazards.

Doing exercises to improve your balance.

Using walking aids such as walking stick, cane, walker.

Adequate lighting around the house.

Grab bars, non-slip shower mat in the bathroom

Addressing osteoporosis

Taking precautions to avoid slipping and falling on ice and snow, uneven ground, stairs, steps, parking areas, unfamiliar areas.